Clough and Amours de Voyage Timeline

Part of Group:

Garibaldi imageThis timeline will include paratextual information about significant events that help to explicate Arthur Hugh Clough's Amour de Voyage. This omnibus edition has been prepared by the participants in a graduate seminar led by Dino Franco Felluga at Purdue University over winter 2021.

Timeline

Chronological table

Displaying 1 - 29 of 29
Date Event Created by Associated Places
17 Mar 1805

Kingdom of Italy founded

On 17 March 1805, the Kingdom of Italy is founded, with Napoleon Bonaparte as King. Image: The Iron Crown of Lombardy, from Cesare Cantù Grande illustrazione del Lombardo-Veneto ossia storia delle città, dei borghi, comuni, castelli, ecc. fino ai tempi moderni Milano, Corona e Caimi Editori, 1858. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

This crowning of Napoleon as King of Italy is a result of the French conquest of Italy. Napoleon was crowned King of Italy with the iron crown of Lombardy on 26 May 1805 (crown pictured above). His full title was "Emperor of the French and King of Italy."

Articles

Alison Chapman, "On Il Risorgimento"

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Erik Simpson, "On Corinne, Or Italy"

Marjorie Stone, “On the Post Office Espionage Scandal, 1844″

COVE Admin
26 May 1805

Napoleon made king of Italy

On 26 May 1805, Napoleon crowns himself King of Italy in Milan Cathedral, with the iron crown of Lombardy. Image: The Iron Crown of Lombardy, from Cesare Cantù Grande illustrazione del Lombardo-Veneto ossia storia delle città, dei borghi, comuni, castelli, ecc. fino ai tempi moderni Milano, Corona e Caimi Editori, 1858. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

In a flamboyant and highly theatrical gesture, Napoleon Bonaparte signifies his political and military dominance over the Italian peninsula with a ceremony in Milan Cathedral, where he crowned himself King of Italy with the ancient, iconic iron crown of Lombardy. This crowning of Napoleon as King is a result of the French conquest of Italy. His full title was "Emperor of the French and King of Italy."

Articles

Alison Chapman, "On Il Risorgimento"

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Erik Simpson, “On Corinne, Or Italy

COVE Admin
1 Jan 1819

Birth of Arthur Hugh Clough

engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough
Engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough, c. 1860.

The poet, critic, and educator, Arthur Hugh Clough, was born on this date to James Butler Clough and Ann Perfect. Like his older siblings, Clough was born in Liverpool, England (Chorley 10).

Works Referenced

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

 

Matt Morgenstern
Dec 1822 to Jun 1828

Clough Family Relocates to Charleston, SC

Jackson_View of Charleston
View of Charleston (View from the East)

In December 1822, the Clough family relocated from Liverpool to Charleston, South Carolina, and moved into a large house on East Bay Street (Kenny 1). Arthur Hugh Clough would live in the Charleston area until he returned to England in 1828 for his formal education, but while in the United States, Clough was educated at home by his mother, Ann Perfect, who did not want her children to see themselves as American. Nevertheless, Clough’s time in the United States seems to have had a lasting effect on his career as Antony Kenny notes in his biography of Clough, which discusses the ways the maritime imagery in Clough’s poetry is reminiscent of his childhood summers on Sullivan's Island (3).

Image: View of Charleston (View from the East), 1846, by Henry Joseph Jackson. This image is part of the public domain and is available on Wikimedia Commons.

Works Referenced

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

Kenny, Anthony. Arthur Hugh Clough: A Poet’s Life. Bloomsbury Academic, 2005.

Emily Pearson
Mar 1829 to 1837

Arthur Hugh Clough at Rugby School

Football at Rugby School
Football at Rugby School

In March 1829, Arthur Hugh Clough and his older brother, Charles, were enrolled in Rugby School, which was then under the control of Dr. Thomas Arnold (Chorley 9). During this time, Clough struggled with English schoolboy culture and was often separated from his parents for extending periods of time. Nevertheless, Clough came to thrive at Rugby, which was going through something of a cultural shift during his time there. Here, Clough began to write seriously for both school competitions and the school periodical (Kenny 14).

Image: Football at Rugby School, unknown artist. This image is part of the public domain and is available on Wikimedia Commons.

Works Referenced

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

Kenny, Anthony. Arthur Hugh Clough: A Poet’s Life. Bloomsbury Academic, 2005.

Emily Pearson
9 Sep 1833 to 25 Jan 1841

Tracts for the Times: 1833-1841

Between 1833 and 1841, members of the Oxford Movement (including John Henry Newman, John Keble, Edward Pusey, Hurrell Froude, Benjamin Harrison, and others) published 90 pamphlets in defense of Anglo-Catholic doctrine. The Tracts for the Times were vital in disseminating and consolidating the principles of the Oxford Movement, or Tractarianism as it was henceforth known. Image: This image is in the public domain in the United States.

Articles

Kimberly J. Stern, "The Publication of John Pentland Mahaffy's The Decay of Modern Preaching (1882)"

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Laura Mooneyham White, "On Pusey's Oxford Sermon on the Eucharist, 24 May 1843"

Miriam Burstein, "The 'Papal Aggression' Controversy, 1850-52"

Barbara Charlesworth Gelpi, "14 July 1833: John Keble's Assize Sermon, National Apostasy"

COVE Admin
1837

Arthur Hugh Clough at Balliol College

Balliol College
Balliol College

Arthur Hugh Clough left Rugby to start at Balliol College, which was considered among the most academically demanding colleges at the University of Oxford (Kenny 38). Oxford at this time was still a “religious and almost monastic institution,” and religion and religious tension would play a key role in Clough’s university career (32). Students at Oxford were required to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England to matriculate, thus excluding Jewish peoples, atheists, Dissenters, and Catholics (32).

Clough studied at Oxford during a tumultuous time for the university’s religious affiliations as the Tractarians and liberal Anglicans disagreed on the direction the church should move in. During this time, Clough’s friend and math tutor, W.G. Ward, a Tractarian, proved to be a tremendous influence on Clough’s thoughts about religion, philosophy, and art (Chorley 52). Although Clough was reportedly an excellent scholar, he performed poorly on the Oxford exams in 1841, earning Second-Class Honors rather than First-Class, to the surprise of many who knew him (Kenny 60). Clough seems to have taken the disappointment hard; he reportedly walked to Rugby, a distance of roughly 45 miles, after his exams to tell Dr. Arnold, “I have failed” (Armstrong 10).

Image: The facade of Balliol College, Oxford. Photographed by Toby Ord, February 2005. Available on Wikimedia Commons.

Works Referenced

Armstrong, Isobel. Arthur Hugh Clough. Longmans Green, 1962.

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

Kenny, Anthony. Arthur Hugh Clough: A Poet’s Life. Bloomsbury Academic, 2005.

Emily Pearson
14 Jun 1839

First Chartist Petition

Depiction of Chartist UprisingOn 14 June 1839, the First Chartist Petition was presented to the House of Commons. The Petition was summarily rejected without a hearing on 12 July 1839. The Petition sought universal male suffrage, a secret ballot, and parliamentary reform. Image: Engraving depicting a Chartist riot from 1886 book True Stories of the Reign of Queen Victoria by Cornelius Brown. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Chris R. Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

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Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

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Nov 1839

Newport Uprising

Chartists attacking Westgate HotelNewport uprising on 3-4 November 1839. This was an armed uprising in support of the Chartist Petition. A few months after the rejection of the first Chartist petition, 9,000 laborers—some of them ignorant of the intentions of their leaders—marched into Newport with the plan of taking control of the town, but were quickly routed by local forces. Image: The attack of the Chartists on the Westgate Hotel, Newport, Mon. Nov 4th 1839. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Chris R. Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

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Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

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2 May 1842

Second Chartist Petition

Depiction of Chartist UprisingPresentation of the Second Chartist Petition to the House of Commons on 2 May 1842. Like the first Chartist Petition, which was presented in June 1839, this was rejected without a hearing on the next day, 3 May 1842. Image: Engraving depicting a Chartist riot from 1886 book True Stories of the Reign of Queen Victoria by Cornelius Brown. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Chris R. Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

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Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

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8 Aug 1842

Manchester strike

Depiction of Chartist UprisingManchester strikes began on 8 August 1842. Following the rejection of the second petition, the Chartists sought to join forces with striking workers in the industrial region around Manchester, who were protesting a reduction in wages, but once again government forces moved quickly to suppress the ensuing riots. Image: Engraving depicting a Chartist riot from 1886 book True Stories of the Reign of Queen Victoria by Cornelius Brown. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Chris R. Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

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Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

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Nov 1842 to 23 Jan 1848

Arthur Hugh Clough at Oriel College

Engraving of William George Ward, c. 1883

After earning a Second for his Oxford exams and later taking an M.A., Arthur Hugh Clough earned a fellowship at Oriel College, Oxford. A tutor and teacher of many students, Clough was also close to figures on both sides of the Oxford Movement (including William George Ward, a Roman Catholic advocate for Tractarianism). Clough eventually resigned his position after refusing to teach the Thirty-Nine Articles, thereby dissenting from the Tractarianism that had become popular (Kenny 124).

Image: Engraving of William George Ward, c. 1883. Public domain, available on Wikimedia

Works Referenced

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

Kenny, Anthony. Arthur Hugh Clough: A Poet’s Life. Bloomsbury Academic, 2005.

 

Matt Morgenstern
24 May 1843

Pusey’s Oxford Sermon on the Eucharist

Edward PuseyOn 24 May 1843, E. B. Pusey gave a sermon at Christ Church, Oxford, on “The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent”; the University authorities deemed the sermon heretical and punished Pusey, an act which constituted a key skirmish between the Oxford Movement and the Established Church. Image: Engraving of Edward Bouverie Pusey, from Rev. C. Arthur Lane, Illustrated Notes on English Church History (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1901). This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Laura Mooneyham White, "On Pusey's Oxford Sermon on the Eucharist, 24 May 1843"

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Barbara Charlesworth Gelpi, "14 July 1833: John Keble's Assize Sermon, National Apostasy"

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1848

Clough’s first meeting with Emerson

Arthur Hugh CloughArthur Hugh Clough’s first meeting with Ralph Waldo Emerson was in March 1848, during Emerson’s second visit to England. Prompted by his sister Anne, who had met Emerson at the house of a family friend the previous autumn, Clough invited Emerson to Oriel College, where he was a Fellow and tutor. Emerson gladly accepted, having been much impressed by a reading of Clough’s lecture “A Consideration of Objections against the Retrenchment Association at Oxford during the Irish Famine in 1847,” an appeal to Oxford undergraduates to reduce their excessive expenditure on champagne, claret and breakfast parties in order to relieve the sufferings of the English and Irish poor. The brief meeting, during which Clough gave Emerson a tour of the Oxford colleges was the start of a life-long friendship. Image: Engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough. This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

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1 Feb 1848

Tuscan uprising

Italy before unificationTuscan patriotic upraising against Austrian Duke (February 1848), which led to a short-lived constitution. Image: An image of non-unified Italy (1815-1870), William Shepherd, Historical Atlas (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1911). This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

To supporters of Italian independence, the short-lived uprising in Tuscany, leading to a new constitution as well as freedom of the press and of religious practice, seemed to be the first step to overthrowing foreign rulers

Articles

Alison Chapman, "On Il Risorgimento"

Articles

Marjorie Stone, “On the Post Office Espionage Scandal, 1844″

COVE Admin
22 Mar 1848 to 22 Aug 1849

Republic of San Marco

La proclamazione della Repubblica di San Marco, Marzo 1848, ca.1850.

Venetians rebelled against the Austrian Empire on 17 March 1848. The Republic of San Marco was founded on 22 March 1848 and Daniele Manin became its president. However, on 22 August 1849, the Austrian army overthrew the Republic of San Marco and re-established the supremacy of Austria in Venice. Immediately after the Austrians entered Venice on 27 August, President Daniele Manin and 39 revolutionary leaders fled Italy. 

Image: La proclamazione della Repubblica di San Marco, Marzo 1848, 1850, by Sanesi. This image is part of the public domain and is available on Wikimedia Commons.

Additional Reading

Cunsolo, Ronald. S. "Venice and the Revolution of 1848-49." in James Chastain et al. Encyclopedia of Revolutions of 1848, Ohio University, 27 Oct 2004, www.ohio.edu/chastain/rz/venrev.htm

Gwenael Jouin
23 Mar 1848 to 22 Aug 1849

First Italian War of Independence

Albrecht Adam, Field Marshal Radetzky and His Staff at the Battle of Novara on March 23, 1849, 1855.

The First Italian War of Independence pitted the Kingdom of Sardinia, defending the Republic of Rome, against the Austrian Empire, defending the monarchy. Historians divide the war into three phases. The first phase is from 23 March 1848 to 9 August 1848. After the Five Days of Milan (18-22 March 1848), King Charles-Albert of Sardinia declared war on Austria. With the help of the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, King Charles-Albert defeated the Austrian Marshal Radetzky in Pastrego on 13 April, in Verona on 6 May, and in Peschiera on 30 May. However, during the Battle of Custoza (23-25 July 1848), the Austrian Army defeated the Sardinian army and king Charles-Albert capitulated on 5 August. The second phase is a truce from 9 August 1848 to 20 March 1849. The third phase is from 20 March 1849 to 24 March 1849. On 20 March 1849, King Charles-Albert declared war on Austria. The Austrian Army defeated the Sardinian army during the battle of Novara (22-23 March). The Armistice of Vignale, signed on 26 March, put an end to the war. Thus, Lombardy was once again ruled by Austria. It was also invaded by other conservative leaders. For example, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte sent ten thousand French soldiers to Civita Vecchia on 25 April 1849 to overthrow the Roman Republic. 

Image: Field Marshal Radetzky and His Staff at the Battle of Novara on March 23, 1849, 1855, by Albrecht Adam. This image is part of the public domain and is available on Wikimedia Commons.

Additional Readings

Coppa, Frank J. The Origins of the Italian Wars of Independence. Routledge, 1992.

Smith, Denis Mack. Modern Italy: A Political History. University of Michigan Press, 1997. 

Gwenael Jouin
10 Apr 1848

Chartist Rally, Kennington

Poster for Chartist DemonstrationOn 10 April 1848, Chartists rally on Kennington Common, south London. Image: Poster advertising the "Monster" Chartist Demonstration, held on 10 April 1848, proceeding to Kennington Common, Rodney Mace, British Trade Union Posters: An Illustrated History. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Led by Feargus O’Connor, an estimated 25,000 Chartists meet on Kennington Common planning to march to Westminster to deliver a monster petition in favor of the six points of the People’s Charter. Police block bridges over the Thames containing the marchers south of the river, and the demonstration is broken up with some arrests and violence. However, the large scale revolt widely predicted and feared fails to materialize.

Articles

Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

Chris Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

COVE Admin
1 Jul 1848

Trial of Chartist leaders

Portrait of Ernest Charles JonesTrial and conviction of the prominent Chartist Ernest Jones and other Chartist leaders, July 1848. Image: A daguerrotype of Ernest Charles Jones, taken in the 1850s. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

The summer of 1848 witnesses violence as Chartist leaders are arrested and secret plots against the government are infiltrated. By the end of August, after the arrest of several hundred Chartists and Irish Confederates, the movement for violent uprising in England is broken.

Articles

Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”


Chris Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

COVE Admin
Nov 1848

Clough, The Bothie of Toper-Na-Fuosich

Arthur Hugh CloughArthur Hugh Clough’s The Bothie of Toper-Na-Fuosich, subtitled “A Long-Vacation Pastoral,” was published in Britain in November 1848. Clough made several revisions to the poem before his death, which formed the basis for posthumous editions, and the title was changed to The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich because of a possible double entendre. Image: Engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough. This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

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circa. Jan 1849

Clough, Ambarvalia

Cover of Ambarvalia first edition, c. 1849

Arthur Hugh Clough's Ambarvalia collection was published in January 1849. A follow-up to his previous narrative poem The Bothie of Toper-na-fuosichAmbarvalia consisted of unpublished poems from Clough’s time at Oxford. It was met with some “charges of obscurity” (Chorley 180) by the periodical press. Ambarvalia was Clough's last poetry publication until Amours de Voyage in 1858.

Image: Scan of first edition cover of Ambarvalia from Chapman and Hall publisher. Public domain; available on Wikisource

Works Referenced

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

Matt Morgenstern
9 Feb 1849 to Jul 1849

Roman Republic

Lithograph of Republic's ProclamationThe Roman Republic existed from 9 February 1849 to 3 July 1849. The Republic was established after Pope Pius IX fled to Gaeta to the protection of King Ferdinand II of Naples, following the assassination of the papal Minister of Justice. Image: Lithograph of 'Proclamazione delle Repubblica Romana', 1849 (published in 1861). This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Alison Chapman, "On Il Risorgimento"

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Marjorie Stone, “On the Post Office Espionage Scandal, 1844″

Erik Simpson, “On Corinne, Or Italy

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The middle of the month Apr 1849 to 17 Jul 1849

Arthur Hugh Clough in Rome

Photograph of the Spanish Steps by Robert MacPherson

In April 1849, Arthur Hugh Clough traveled to Rome to witness the struggle for Italian independence from both Vatican and Austrian authorities. While in Rome, Clough lived with a Swiss family located at 74 Via delle Croce near the Piazza di Spagna (Kenny 157). Clough left Rome in July to see the rest of the country. Though his stay in Rome was brief, Clough's experiences there were instrumental to the narrative of his verse-novel, Amours de Voyage. 

Image: "Trinità dei Monti" (with The Spanish Steps). Photograph by Robert MacPherson, c. 1860. Public domain. 

Works Referenced

Kenny, Anthony. Arthur Hugh Clough: A Poet’s Life. Bloomsbury Academic, 2005.

Matt Morgenstern
25 Apr 1849 to 3 Jul 1849

French Troops Land at Civita Vecchia.

Melchiorre Fontana, Assalto delle truppe francesci a Roma nel 1849, 1860.

On 25 April 1849, ten thousand French soldiers led by General Charles Oudinot landed at Civita Vecchia to fight Roman revolutionaries. On 3 July 1849, the power of pope Pius IX was restored in Rome. 

Image: Assalto delle truppe francesci a Roma nel 1849, 1860, by Melchiorre Fontana. This image is part of the public domain and is available on Wikimedia Commons.

Additional Reading

Banti, Alberto Mario. Il Risorgimento italiano. Editori Laterza, 2013. 

Gwenael Jouin
30 Oct 1852

Arthur Hugh Clough travels to US

Arthur Hugh CloughOn the invitation of Ralph Emerson, Arthur Hugh Clough set sail for Boston on 30 October 1852, aboard the royal mail ship Canada, to seek employment in New England. Thackeray and James Russell Lowell were among his traveling companions. He arrived in Boston on 12 November 1852 and remained in the Boston/Cambridge area for seven months, where he published several articles in American magazines and formed new friendships with American writers, including Charles Eliot Norton and Longfellow. He remained in correspondence with these influential American friends up until his death and his poem Amours de Voyage was published for the first time in the Atlantic Monthly. Image: Engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough. This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

Articles

Susan Donovan, “How the Post Office and Postal Products Shaped Mid-Nineteenth-Century Letter-Writing”

COVE Admin
13 Jun 1854

Arthur Hugh Clough marries Blanche Smith

Arthur Hugh Clough, engraving
Arthur Hugh Clough

Clough married Blanche Smith on 13 June 1853 after a prolonged, long-distance engagement (Chorley 295). During the early years of the marriage, Clough and Blanche lived primarily in London, although they traveled extensively—sometimes together and sometimes apart—in the last year of Clough’s life when his health was failing. The couple had 4 children together, although one son died in early infancy (Chorley 310). Their youngest child, Blanche Athena, later became a principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, following in the footsteps of her paternal aunt. Through Blanche, Clough met Florence Nightingale, with whom he worked on a lengthy report on medical practices in the British military (Kenny 268-9).

Image: Engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough. This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

Works Referenced

Chorley, Katharine. Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Clarendon Press, 1962. 

Kenny, Anthony. Arthur Hugh Clough: A Poet’s Life. Bloomsbury Academic, 2005.

Emily Pearson
1 Feb 1861

Italy is united

Portrait of Vittorio EmanueleOn February 1861, Vittorio Emanuele II of Piedmont is crowned king of Italy: Italy is formally united, with Turin as the capital city. Image: Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoia (c. 1840s-1850s), Museo nazionale del Risorgimento, Torino (author unknown). This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Alison Chapman, "On Il Risorgimento"

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Marjorie Stone, “On the Post Office Espionage Scandal, 1844″

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1 Nov 1861

death of Arthur Hugh Clough

Arthur Hugh CloughArthur Hugh Clough died in Florence, Italy, on 13 November 1861, aged 42, after a lengthy period of ill-health. He is buried in the Swiss Cemetery at Florence. Image: Engraving of Arthur Hugh Clough. This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

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Susan Donovan, “How the Post Office and Postal Products Shaped Mid-Nineteenth-Century Letter-Writing”

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2 Oct 1870

Rome annexed to Italy

Plebiscite annexes Rome and Latium to the Kingdom of Italy, 2 October 1870. This event marks the final phase of the unification of Italy.

Articles

Alison Chapman, "On Il Risorgimento"

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Marjorie Stone, “On the Post Office Espionage Scandal, 1844″

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