What was happening when Queen V reigned?

This timeline offers just a few of the many events that shaped Victorian Britain and her people. You will be assigned one of these events to learn about for the 

SO THAT HAPPENED AND . . . : THE IMPORTANCE OF TIME assignment.

Jumping right into this event after it is assigned will be vital so that it can be in your mind throughout our readings of our Victorian literary texts. That's vital because you will ultimately be asked how a Victorian who lived through that event would have somehow linked that event to one of our literary texts.

Timeline

Chronological table

Displaying 1 - 40 of 40
Date Event Created by Associated Places
Jun 1832

Reform Act

first page of Reform ActThe Great Reform Act of 1832 was passed in June 1832 after long discussion, with King William IV giving the royal asses on 7 June 1832. This followed a failed attempt on September 1831 that was vetoed by the House of Lords. A second draft was passed after the King intervened. The Bill eliminated many rotten boroughs and created a new class of eligible voters, providing a model by which non-landowners might claim representation in Parliament. Image: First page of the Reform Act, from the British government's national archives. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Carolyn Vellenga Berman, “On the Reform Act of 1832″

Related Articles

Janice Carlisle, “On the Second Reform Act, 1867″

Pamela Gilbert, "On Cholera in Nineteenth-Century England"

17 Aug 1839

Act on Custody of Infants

British Coat of ArmsOn 17 August 1839, passage of an Act to Amend the Law Relating to the Custody of Infants. The Act allowed a separated wife to petition the court for custody of her children under the age of seven. Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Related Articles

Rachel Ablow, “‘One Flesh,’ One Person, and the 1870 Married Women’s Property Act”

Kelly Hager, “Chipping Away at Coverture: The Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857″

Jill Rappoport, “Wives and Sons: Coverture, Primogeniture, and Married Women’s Property”

10 Jan 1840

launch of UK Penny Post

The introduction of the Penny Post in 1840, the rapid expansion of the rail network in the UK, and the introduction of steamships on the transatlantic routes, created the optimum conditions for writing letters. Prior to 1840, the cost of inland postage was prohibitively expensive; it was calculated according to the number of sheets multiplied by the distance traveled. Additional charges were often levied and the burden of payment fell on the recipient, which did nothing to encourage frequent communication. The Penny Post Act drastically reduced the cost of an inland letter to a universal flat rate of just one penny for a half an ounce, and the introduction of the prepaid penny stamp removed the deterrent to accepting a letter.

Articles

Susan Donovan, “How the Post Office and Postal Products Shaped Mid-Nineteenth-Century Letter-Writing”

2 May 1842

Second Chartist Petition

Depiction of Chartist UprisingPresentation of the Second Chartist Petition to the House of Commons on 2 May 1842. Like the first Chartist Petition, which was presented in June 1839, this was rejected without a hearing on the next day, 3 May 1842. Image: Engraving depicting a Chartist riot from 1886 book True Stories of the Reign of Queen Victoria by Cornelius Brown. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Chris R. Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

Related Articles

Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

Jul 1842

Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population

Photo of ChadwickIn July 1842 Edwin Chadwick, with Dr. Thomas Southwood Smith, published his ‘The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population,’ at his own expense. The report detailed the sanitary conditions of the poor and advocated reform, tracing public health problems directly to the awful state of urban housing the poor endured. Chadwick’s report launched the mid-century sanitary movement, though it had a slow start because change was expensive. Image: Photograph of Sir Edwin Chadwick. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Related Articles

Pamela Gilbert, "On Cholera in Nineteenth-Century England"

Barbara Leckie, “‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’ (1883): Print Exposé and Print Reprise”

24 May 1843

Pusey’s Oxford Sermon on the Eucharist

Edward PuseyOn 24 May 1843, E. B. Pusey gave a sermon at Christ Church, Oxford, on “The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent”; the University authorities deemed the sermon heretical and punished Pusey, an act which constituted a key skirmish between the Oxford Movement and the Established Church. Image: Engraving of Edward Bouverie Pusey, from Rev. C. Arthur Lane, Illustrated Notes on English Church History (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1901). This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Laura Mooneyham White, "On Pusey's Oxford Sermon on the Eucharist, 24 May 1843"

Related Articles

Barbara Charlesworth Gelpi, "14 July 1833: John Keble's Assize Sermon, National Apostasy"

21 Jul 1845

Museums of Art Act

British Coat of ArmsOn 21 July 1845, the Museums of Art Act received Royal Assent. This Act encouraged the establishment of museums of art or science by granting towns with over 10,000 inhabitants the right to buy land and erect buildings, to be supported with an increase in rates (property taxes) of no more than ½ penny to the pound; such lands, buildings, and collections were to be owned and managed by the Council. Town Councils could fix admission charges not to exceed one penny per person, to be used for museum employees’ salaries and museum maintenance. Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Articles

Amy Woodson-Boulton, “The City Art Museum Movement and the Social Role of Art”

25 Jun 1846

Repeal of Corn Laws

British Coat of ArmsThe repeal of the Corn Laws on 25 June 1846. Reversing decades of protectionism, the repeal of the Corn Laws lifted restrictions on the importation of foreign grain. Image: the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Articles

Ayse Çelikkol, "On the Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846"

Related Articles

Peter Melville Logan, “On Culture: Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy, 1869″

Robert O’Kell, “On Young England”

4 Sep 1847

Punch's “The Deformito-mania”

Punch IllustrationIn September of 1847, Punch publishes the engraving, "The Deformito-mania," which bemoans the public’s “prevailing taste for deformity, which seems to grow by what it feeds upon” (90). Image: the cover of Punch magazine volume 1, 1841. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Nadja Durbach, "On the Emergence of the Freak Show"

10 Apr 1848

Chartist Rally, Kennington

Poster for Chartist DemonstrationOn 10 April 1848, Chartists rally on Kennington Common, south London. Image: Poster advertising the "Monster" Chartist Demonstration, held on 10 April 1848, proceeding to Kennington Common, Rodney Mace, British Trade Union Posters: An Illustrated History. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Led by Feargus O’Connor, an estimated 25,000 Chartists meet on Kennington Common planning to march to Westminster to deliver a monster petition in favor of the six points of the People’s Charter. Police block bridges over the Thames containing the marchers south of the river, and the demonstration is broken up with some arrests and violence. However, the large scale revolt widely predicted and feared fails to materialize.

Articles

Jo Briggs, “1848 and 1851: A Reconsideration of the Historical Narrative”

Chris Vanden Bossche, "On Chartism"

Jul 1848

Founding of St. John’s House Training Institution for Nurses

image of Florence NightingaleFounding of St. John’s House Training Institution for Nurses in July of 1848. Image: Supplement to the Nursing Record (20 December 1888). This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Arlene Young, “The Rise of the Victorian Working Lady: The New-Style Nurse and the Typewriter, 1840-1900″

Lara Kriegel, “On the Death—and Life—of Florence Nightingale, August 1910″

Jan 1851

London Labour and the London Poor

Engraving of Henry Mayhew1851 saw the publication of Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor. London Labour appeared as a series of articles in the Morning Chronicle throughout the 1840s, before being compiled into three volumes in 1851. Exact month of publication unknown; if you have information about the correct date, please email felluga@purdue.edu with this information. The articles were innovative in the way they articulated the voices of the poorer classes of London. As an ethnographic study, Mayhew’s work explores the multicultural textures of Britain’s center, drawing attention to the ethnic diversity within a nation determined to maintain a stable national and cultural identity. Image: Henry Mayhew, taken from the 1861 edition of London Labour and the London Poor. This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Lesa Scholl, “Irish Migration to London During the c.1845-52 Famine: Henry Mayhew’s Representation in London Labour and the London Poor

Heidi Kaufman, “1800-1900: Inside and Outside the Nineteenth-Century East End”

1 May 1851 to 15 Oct 1851

Great Exhibition

Interior of the Crystal PalaceHeld from May to October of 1851, “The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations” was opened by Queen Victoria in the structure built to house it, the Crystal Palace, in Hyde Park, London. Image: Interior view of the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London during the Great Exhibition of 1851. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 was an event in the history of: exhibitions; world’s fairs; consumerism; imperialism; architecture; collections; things; glass and material culture in general; visual culture; attention and inattention; distraction. Its ostensible purposes, as stated by the organizing commission and various promoters, most notably Prince Albert, were chiefly to celebrate the industry and ingeniousness of various world cultures, primarily the British, and to inform and educate the public about the achievement, workmanship, science and industry that produced the numerous and multifarious objects and technologies on display. Designed by Joseph Paxton, the Crystal Palace (pictured above) was a structure of iron and glass conceptually derived from greenhouses and railway stations, but also resembling the shopping arcades of Paris and London. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations became a model for World’s Fairs, by which invited nations showcased the best in manufacturing, design, and art, well into the twentieth century.

Articles

Audrey Jaffe, "On the Great Exhibition"

Related Articles

Aviva Briefel, "On the 1886 Colonial and Indian Exhibition"

Anne Helmreich, “On the Opening of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, 1854″

Anne Clendinning, “On The British Empire Exhibition, 1924-25″

Barbara Leckie, “Prince Albert’s Exhibition Model Dwellings”

Carol Senf, “‘The Fiddler of the Reels’: Hardy’s Reflection on the Past”

2 Oct 1853 to 30 Mar 1856

Crimean War

Image from Crimean WarThe Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Britain enters the conflict on 28 March 1854. Image: Photograph of Cornet Henry John Wilkin, by Roger Fenton (1855). Wilkin survived the Charge of the Light Brigade. This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3g09124. The image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Stefanie Markovits, "On the Crimean War and the Charge of the Light Brigade"

30 Jul 1855

Public Libraries Act

British Coat of ArmsOn 30 July 1855, the Public Libraries Act received Royal Assent. This Act repealed the 1850 Act, expanding it to include towns, improvement districts, and parishes (or two parishes with combined population) of 5,000 or more. Town councils or a minimum of ten ratepayers could now request adoption of Act, which required a two-thirds vote of a meeting of ratepayers called by the Mayor, by the Improvement Board, or by the Parish Overseers of the Poor. (The Act specified how to call this meeting, but does not give a quorum.) This Act also doubled the library and museum rate to 1 penny in the pound, all libraries and museums created under Act to be free of charge; the law specifies detailed requirements for oversight of libraries, museums, and/or schools of art or science. Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Articles


Amy Woodson-Boulton, “The City Art Museum Movement and the Social Role of Art”

10 May 1857 to 20 Jun 1858

Indian Uprising

print of the hanging of two rebelsThe Indian Rebellion or Uprising, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions. It was not contained until the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858. Image: Felice Beato, Print of the hanging of two rebels, 1858 (albumen silver print). This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Priti Joshi, “1857; or, Can the Indian ‘Mutiny’ Be Fixed?”

Related Articles

Julie Codell, “On the Delhi Coronation Durbars, 1877, 1903, 1911″

Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, “The Moxon Tennyson as Textual Event: 1857, Wood Engraving, and Visual Culture”

Sarah Winter, “On the Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica and the Governor Eyre-George William Gordon Controversy, 1865-70″

28 Aug 1857

Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857

British Coat of ArmsOn 28 August 1857, passage of the Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857. The Act legalized divorce and protected a divorced woman’s property and future earnings. The grounds for divorce for men was adultery (in legal terms, criminal conversation), for women adultery combined with bigamy, incest, bestiality, sodomy, desertion, cruelty, or rape. Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Articles

Kelly Hager, “Chipping Away at Coverture: The Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857″

Related Articles

Rachel Ablow, “‘One Flesh,’ One Person, and the 1870 Married Women’s Property Act”

Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, “The Moxon Tennyson as Textual Event: 1857, Wood Engraving, and Visual Culture”

Jill Rappoport, “Wives and Sons: Coverture, Primogeniture, and Married Women’s Property”

1858

English Woman’s Journal first published

photo of ParkesMarch 1858 saw the first issue of England’s first feminist monthly magazine, the English Woman's Journal. Aimed primarily at a middle-class audience, the magazine promoted new employment and educational opportunities for women, and featured a mix of political and social commentary, reportage of current events, poetry, book reviews, and a correspondence column. Image: Photograph of Bessie Rayner Parkes Belloc (date unknown). This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Janice Schroeder, “On the English Woman’s Journal, 1858-62″

30 Apr 1859

All the Year Round founded

Cover of All the Year RoundFirst issue of All the Year Round appears on 30 April 1859.

All the Year Round was the first magazine with Dickens as proprietor-editor, and home to first important sensation novel, Woman in White.

Articles

Linda K. Hughes, "On New Monthly Magazines, 1859-60"

24 Nov 1859

On the Origin of Species

Photograph of Charles DarwinOn 24 November 1859, Charles Darwin publishes his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Image: Henry Maull and John Fox, Photograph of Charles Darwin (c. 1854). This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Nancy Armstrong, “On Charles Darwin’s The Descent of Man, 24 February 1871″

Ian Duncan, “On Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle”

Anna Henchman, “Charles Darwin’s Final Book on Earthworms, 1881”

Martin Meisel, "On the Age of the Universe"

Cannon Schmitt, “On the Publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, 1859″

Related Articles

Daniel Bivona, “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876″

1 Jan 1860

Cornhill Magazine founded

Cornhill Magazine, January 1862First issue of Cornhill Magazine appears on 1 January 1860. Cornhill was the most famous of the new generation of shilling magazines, emphasizing illustrated fiction and a family audience

Articles

Linda K. Hughes, "On New Monthly Magazines, 1859-60"

1 Oct 1861

Book of Household Management

Title page of Beeton's bookOn 1 October 1861, Isabella Beeton’s Book of Household Management was published in one-volume form. The book has been called “the most famous English cookery book ever published.” Image: Title Page of Beeton's Book of Household Management. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Susan Zlotnick, “On the Publication of Isabella Beeton’s Book of Household Management, 1861″

Nov 1865 to Nov 1866

Cholera Epidemic

The last cholera epidemic is conventionally termed “of 1866” as that was the period of the highest mortality. The epidemic arrived in Britain in September 1865 and ended in November 1866.

Articles

Pamela Gilbert, "On Cholera in Nineteenth-Century England"

11 May 1866

Black Friday

The Collapse of the City of London's oldest bill-brokerage firm and discount company, Overend, Gurney, and Company initiates the financial panic of 1866, marking a change in perception of the banking industry and stimulating new economic theories during the 1860s.

Articles

Joshua Gooch, "On 'Black Friday,' 11 May 1866"

2 Jul 1866

Hyde Park demonstration

Hyde Park Demonstration of the Major Reform League on 23 July 1866. After the British government banned a meeting organized to press for voting rights, 200,000 people entered the Park and clashed with police and soldiers.

Related Articles

Peter Melville Logan, “On Culture: Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy, 1869″

Sarah Winter, “On the Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica and the Governor Eyre-George William Gordon Controversy, 1865-70″

15 Aug 1867

Second Reform Act

British Coat of ArmsOn 15 August 1867, the Representation of the People Act, 1867 (also known as the Second Reform Act), received the royal assent. This act increased the electorate of England and Wales to approximately one man in three, theoretically including substantial numbers of working-class men. Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Articles

Janice Carlisle, "On the Second Reform Act, 1867"

Related Articles

Carolyn Vellenga Berman, “On the Reform Act of 1832″

Elaine Hadley, “On Opinion Politics and the Ballot Act of 1872″

Herbert F. Tucker, "On Event"

Sarah Winter, “On the Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica and the Governor Eyre-George William Gordon Controversy, 1865-70″

26 Jul 1869

Poor Rate Assessment and Collection Act

British Coat of ArmsOn 26 July 1869, the Poor Rate Assessment and Collection Act, 1869, received the royal assent. This act reinstated compounding, the collection of tenants’ poor rates along with their rent, a practice that had been eliminated by the passage of the Second Reform Act Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Articles

Janice Carlisle, "On the Second Reform Act, 1867"

27 Nov 1869

Hereditary Genius

photo of GaltonOn 27 November 1869, Francis Galton published Hereditary Genius, which purports to be the first statistical study of creative and intellectual eminence. Image: Sir Francis Galton, probably taken in the 1850s or early 1860s (labeled as "middle life" in source). This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Rebecca N. Mitchell, “Francis Galton’s Hereditary Genius, 1869 & 1892″

9 Aug 1870

1870 Married Women's Property Act

British Coat of ArmsOn 9 August 1870, the Married Women’s Property Act was passed. Image: The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

This Act established limited protections for some separate property for married women, including the right to retain up to £200 of any earning or inheritance. Before this all of a woman's property owned before her marriage, as well as all acquired after the marriage, automatically became her husband's alone. Only women whose families negotiated different terms in a marriage contract were able to retain control of some portion of their property.

Articles

Rachel Ablow, "On the Married Woman's Property Act, 1870"

Related Articles

Kelly Hager, “Chipping Away at Coverture: The Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857″

Jill Rappoport, “Wives and Sons: Coverture, Primogeniture, and Married Women’s Property”

Anne Wallace, “On the Deceased Wife’s Sister Controversy, 1835-1907″

24 Feb 1871

Descent of Man

Cameron photo of DarwinOn 24 February 1871, Charles Darwin published his argument for the gradualist evolution of the human species from animal species in two volumes: The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Image: Charles Darwin, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron (1868). Reprinted in Charles Darwin: His Life Told in an Autobiographical Chapter, and in a Selected Series of His Published Letters, edited by Francis Darwin. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1892. This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Nancy Armstrong, “On Charles Darwin’s The Descent of Man, 24 February 1871″

Related Articles

Ian Duncan, “On Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle”

Anna Henchman, “Charles Darwin’s Final Book on Earthworms, 1881”

Cannon Schmitt, “On the Publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, 1859″

4 Jan 1884

Fabian Society founded

Fabian tortoiseOn 4 January 1884, Fabian Society was founded. The Fabian Society was committed to gradualism, electoralism, and “progressive” imperialism. Image: The tortoise is the symbol of Fabian Society, representing its goal of gradual expansion of socialism. This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Eleanor Courtemanche, “On the Publication of Fabian Essays in Socialism, December 1889″

Related Articles

Florence Boos, “The Socialist League, founded 30 December 1884″

30 Dec 1884

Socialist League formed

cover of manifesto of the socialist leagueOn 27 December 1884, the majority of Socialist Democratic Federation council members resigned, followed by the formation of the Socialist League on December 30th. On 1 January 1885, the Socialist League's journal, the Commonweal, was inaugurated under the editorship of William Morris. Image: Cover of the Manifesto of the Socialist League, 1885. Published prior to 1923, public domain. Digital image from the Tim Davenport collection, no copyright claimed.

Articles

Florence Boos, “The Socialist League, founded 30 December 1884″

Jul 1885

The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon

In July 1885, W. T. Stead published The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon in the Pall Mall Gazette.

Related Articles

Heidi Kaufman, “1800-1900: Inside and Outside the Nineteenth-Century East End”

Jul 1888

London Matchgirls' Strike

In July 1888, the London Matchgirls' Strike occurred.

Related Articles

Heidi Kaufman, “1800-1900: Inside and Outside the Nineteenth-Century East End”

Aug 1888 to Sep 1889

Jack the Ripper murders

From August 1888 to September 1889, the serial killer known as the Whitechapel Murderer or Jack the Ripper stalked women living in the East End of London.

Related Articles

Heidi Kaufman, “1800-1900: Inside and Outside the Nineteenth-Century East End”

Marlene Tromp, “A Priori: Harriet Buswell and Unsolved Murder Before Jack the Ripper, 24-25 December 1872″

1 Oct 1888

First Arts & Crafts exhibition

photo of Walter CraneOn 1 Oct 1888, the First Arts and Crafts exhibition opened. The Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society provided a venue for the public display of decorative arts in central London. Image: Photograph of Walter Crane, first president of the Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society. Detail of photo by Frederick Hollyer, from the album Portraits of Many Persons of Note, 1886. This image is in the public domain in the United States as its copyright has expired.

Articles

Imogen Hart, “On the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society”

Morna O’Neill, “On Walter Crane and the Aims of Decorative Art”

26 Nov 1888

London School Board elections

On 26 November 1888 occurred the election for seats on the London School Board for the Sixth Board.

Articles

Patricia Rigg, “Gender and Politics in London School Board Elections: Augusta Webster, Helen Taylor, and a Decade of Electoral Battles”

1894

"New Aspect of the Woman Question"

In March 1894, Sarah Grand's “The New Aspect of the Woman Question” was published. The essay in North American Review, vol.158, no.448, March 1894, pp.270–6 has been credited with identifying the "New Woman."

Articles

Meaghan Clarke, “1894: The Year of the New Woman Art Critic”

Apr 1895 to May 1895

Trials of Oscar Wilde

photo of WildeThe trials of Oscar Wilde, which occurred in April and May of 1895, have become legendary as a turning-point in the history of public awareness of homosexuality. By their close, Wilde had gone from being a triumphantly successful playwright to a ruined man, condemned to two years of hard labor for gross indecency. They garnered extensive coverage first in the London press and then in newspapers around the world; the story of the trials continues to be retold in ways that have persistent relevance for contemporary queer culture. Image: Photograph of Oscar Wilde, by Napoleon Sarony. This image is in the public domain in the United States because its copyright has expired.

Articles

Andrew Elfenbein, “On the Trials of Oscar Wilde: Myths and Realities”

11 Oct 1899 to 31 May 1902

Second Boer War

Crane, Stop the WarOn 11 Oct 1899, war was declared between Britain and the Transvaal Republic and Orange Free State, two independent Boer nations in southern Africa. The Treaty of Vereeniging concluded the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902. The fighting had resulted in c. 45,000 British military casualties and around 40,000 combined military and civilian casualties among the Boers. Eight years later in 1910, the Union of South Africa made the region a dominion of the British Empire. Image: Walter Crane, “Stop the War,” page 297, The War Against War in South Africa, 23 February 1900, wood engraving, courtesy of Yale University.

Articles

Jo Briggs, “The Second Boer War, 1899-1902: Anti-Imperialism and European Visual Culture”